Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information.
Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
This book provides a concise introduction to convex duality in financial mathematics. Convex duality plays an essential role in dealing with financial problems and involves maximizing concave utility functions and minimizing convex risk measures. Recently, convex and generalized convex dualities have shown to be crucial in the process of the dynamic hedging of contingent claims. Common underlying principles and connections between different perspectives are developed; results are illustrated through graphs and explained heuristically. This book can be used as a reference and is aimed toward graduate students, researchers and practitioners in mathematics, finance, economics, and optimization. Topics include: Markowitz portfolio theory, growth portfolio theory, fundamental theorem of asset pricing emphasizing the duality between utility optimization and pricing by martingale measures, risk measures and its dual representation, hedging and super-hedging and its relationship with linear programming duality and the duality relationship in dynamic hedging of contingent claims
Composite structures and products have developed tremendously since the publication of the first edition of this work in 1986. This new edition of the now classic 1986 text has been written to educate the engineering reader in the various aspects of mechanics for using composite materials in the design and analysis of composite structures and products. Areas dealt with include manufacture, micromechanical properties, structural design, joints and bonding and a much needed introduction to composite design philosophy. Each chapter is concluded by numerous problems suitable for home assignments or examination. A solution guide is available on request from the authors.
About this book In the last century developments in mathematics, philosophy, physics, computer science, economics and linguistics have proven important for the development of logic. There has been an influx of new ideas, concerns, and logical systems reflecting a great variety of reasoning tasks in the sciences. This volume reflects the multi-dimensional nature of the interplay between logic and science. It presents contributions from the world's leading scholars under the following headings: - Proof, Knowledge and Computation - Truth Values beyond Bivalence - Category-Theoretic Structures - Independence, Evaluation Games, and Imperfect Information - Dialogue and Pragmatics. The contents exemplify the liveliness of modern perspectives on the philosophy of logic and mathematics and demonstrate the growth of the discipline. It describes new trends, possible developments for research and new issues not normally raised in the standard agenda of the philosophy of logic and mathematics. It transforms rigid classical partitions into a more open field for improvisation. Written for: Logicians, philosophers, specialists of Cognitive Science and Computer Science, mathematicians, linguists Keywords: Foundations of Mathematics Games Logic Philosophy Semantics
This book is Open Access under a CC BY license.
This volume offers an essential resource for economic policymakers as well as students of development economics focusing on the interrelationships of migration, urbanization and poverty in Asia. The continent's recent demographic transitions and rural-urban structural transformations are extraordinary, and involve complexities that require in-depth study.
The chapters within this volume examine those complexities using a range of traditional and non-traditional measures, such as multidimensional poverty, gaps and polarization, to arrive at the conclusion that poverty is now an urban issue.
In short, the book will help students of development economics and policymakers understand the interrelationships between internal migration, urbanization and poverty, paving the way for the improved management of internal migration and disadvantaged and vulnerable populations.
EtYIL 2019 comes out while the world is in the midst of a new coronavirus pandemic that has infected millions and killed thousands of people without distinction as to age, race, colour, or creed. As an attack on all humanity, Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, has challenged the fitness of the global order as never before, and its institutional and normative frameworks have been found wanting. As is often the case in such circumstances, when the WHO is denied resources to assist those countries or the WTO is unable to guarantee access to Covid-19 medical supplies and protective equipment, it is the poorest nations that suffer the most. EtYIL's mission is to provide a platform for purpose-oriented scholarly analysis and debate on issues of particular significance for African countries such as Covid-19, disputes over Nile water resources, and Ethiopia-Eritrea relations. Although the pandemic came too late for this issue of EtYIL, we have managed to include two important articles that examine the subject from geostrategic and legal perspectives. EtYIL 2019 also addresses a number of other topical issues, including the responsibility of the UN Security Council (UNSC) in climate-related risks to least developed countries, the Global South's approach to environmental protection, the challenges of international regulation of arms brokering, and the contributions of Martin Luther King, Jr. to Pan-Africanism and international human rights law. Finally, the Yearbook also continues its coverage of regional issues such as the evolving Ethiopia-Eritrea relations, Djibouti's accession to the ICSID Convention; the trilateral negotiations between Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and the U.S. meddling and the role of the UNSC on the issue have also been covered. As before, our contributors come from all over the world, to all of whom we extend our sincere appreciations.
This book provides a complete and current overview of the correlation between ocean conditions and human health, publishing comprehensively for the first time on the direct interactions among oceanography, marine biology and impacts on human health. Specifically the text addresses how changing ocean conditions result in health impacts and disruptions, with a focus on cases in the USA. The changing ocean conditions that are discussed include diminishing marine biodiversity, climactic changes such as intensified weather events, shifting sea currents and increasing sea temperature. The book addresses the resulting health issues brought about by these various ocean conditions, such as emerging infectious diseases, starvation and poisoning among impacted communities, toxic algae blooms, threatened ecosystems, and other future implications. The text was developed in conjunction with scientists from Brown University, the University of Rhode Island, the University of Texas at Austin, the University of California at Riverside and Ochsner Health, all located in areas deeply impacted by the changing Oceans. The book will be of interest to marine research scientists, health care professionals, students, and general enthusiasts of oceanography and health.
This book presents a new view of the mechanism of functional expression of ATP-driven motors (proteins or protein complexes). It is substantially different from the prevailing idea that the motor converts chemical energy to mechanical work. To facilitate understanding, the differences between the new and prevailing views are explained using many illustrations. The book is of interest to those who are not convinced of the notion of chemo-mechanical coupling. The claims presented are the following: The system, which comprises not only the motor but also water, does no mechanical work during the ATP hydrolysis cycle; a protein is moved or a protein in the complex is rotated by the entropic force generated by water. The highlight of the explanation in the book is that the mechanism of unidirectional rotation of the central shaft in F1-ATPase is discussed in detail on the basis of this new view. The hydration entropy of each ß subunit to which a specific chemical compound (ATP, ADP and Pi, Pi, or nothing) is bound, the hydration entropy of the a3ß3 complex, and the dependence of the hydration entropy of F1-ATPase on the orientation of the ? subunit play essential roles.
This book provides a comprehensive, single-source on resonant switched-capacitor converters. It is written in the style of a handbook, with systematic guidelines, and includes implementation examples. The authors explore integrated hybrid resonant DCDC converters in order to achieve highly compact, energy ef?cient and cost-effective power management solutions in the growing fields of wearables and internet-of-things applications. They provide an introduction into hybrid converters as a new and promising converter class, which merges capacitive and inductive conversion concepts into one. Coverage ranges from fundamentals to implementation details, including topics such as power stage design, gate drive schemes, different control mechanisms for resonant operation and integrated passives.Introduces a new, multi-ratio resonant converter architecture, which enables lower switching frequencies and better passive component utilization;Discusses circuit block design for high ef?ciency of the power stage;Explores implementation details and concepts for integrated passives;Derives models, implements and compares to each other different control mechanisms.
Attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, asperger's syndrome, and autism, to name but a few, may be viewed as points on a spectrum of developmental disabilities in which those points share features in common and possibly etiology as well, varying only in severity and in the primary anatomical region of dysfunctional activity.
This text focuses on alterations of the normal development of the child. A working theory is presented based on what we know of the neurological and cognitive development in the context of evolution of the human species and its brain. In outlining our theory of developmental disabilities in evolutionary terms, the authors offer evidence to support the following notions: Bipedalism was the major reason for human neocortical evolution; Cognition evolved secondary and parallel to evolution of motricity; There exists an overlap of cognitive and motor symptoms; Lack of thalamo-cortical stimulation, not overstimulation, is a fundamental problem of developmental disabilities; A primary problem is dysfunctions of hemisphericity; Most conditions in this spectrum of disorders are the result of a right hemisphericity; Environment is a fundamental problem; All of these conditions are variations of the same problem; These problems are correctable; Hemisphere specific treatment is the key to success.
Sie wollen Ihre Botschaft auf den Punkt bringen? Ihnen fehlt noch eine gelungene Einleitung für die Kick-Off-Veranstaltung Ihres Projekts? Sie mchten die Meilensteine eines Projekts mit einem griffigen Bonmot kommunizieren? Mit diesem Buch sind Sie immer gut gerüstet.Ausgewählte Zitate von zahlreichen Persnlichkeiten aus Management, Wissenschaft, Literatur und Politik helfen Ihnen, Ihre Gedanken auf den Punkt zu bringen. So bleiben Sie und Ihre Botschaft Ihren Zuhrern und Lesern im Gedächtnis!
This book presents the results of the most complete and updated assessment of cognitive resources of students in Latin America: the Study of Latin American Intelligence (SLATINT). During four years, top researchers of the region used a standardized set of cognitive measures to assess 4,000 students aged between 14 and 15 years from six countries: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Colombia and Peru. The data collected and now analyzed in this volume is a first step to understand the human cognitive capital of the region, a crucial resource for any country today. Intelligence research has shown that the cognitive skills of a population are strongly associated with the school performance of its students and the development of a nation. This makes Intelligence Measurement and School Performance in Latin America a valuable tool both for Latin American researchers and authorities engaged in the improvement of each country's human resources and for psychologists, educators and other social scientists dedicated to the study of the impact of intelligence in the development of nations.
This book focuses on the development of stapled peptides, a novel molecular modality used to regulate aberrant intracellular protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The author designs and presents a novel helical peptide stabilization methodology by constructing a chiral cross-linker moiety, namely "chiral center induced peptide helicity (CIH)". The book demonstrates that a precisely positioned carbon chiral center on tether can decisively determine the secondary structure of a peptide, and that the R-configured peptide is helical, while the S-configured peptide is non-helical. Further, it reports that helicity-enhanced R isomer peptides displayed significantly enhanced cell permeability and target binding affinity, as well as tumor inhibition efficiency, in comparison to S isomer peptides. The book will not only advance readers' understanding of the basic principle of stapled peptides, but also accelerate the clinical transformation of stapled peptide drugs.
This book presents the main theoretical foundations behind smart services as well as specific guidelines and practically proven methods on how to design them. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the possible implementation architectures and shows how the designed smart services can be realized with specific technologies. Finally, it provides four specific use cases that show how smart services have been realized in practice and what impact they have within the businesses.The first part of the book defines the basic concepts and aims to establish a shared understanding of terms, such as smart services, service systems, smart service systems or cyber-physical systems. On this basis, it provides an analysis of existing work and includes insights on how an organization incorporating smart services could enhance and adjust their management and business processes. The second part on the design of smart services elaborates on what constitutes a successful smart service and describes experiences in the area of interdisciplinary teams, strategic partnerships, the overall service systems and the common data basis. In the third part, technical reference architectures are presented in detail, encompassing topics on the design of digital twins in cyber physical systems, the communication between entities and sensors in the age of Industry 4.0 as well as data management and integration. The fourth part then highlights a number of analytical possibilities that can be realized and that can constitute or be part of smart services, including machine learning and artificial intelligence methods. Finally, the applicability of the introduced design and development method is demonstrated by considering specific real-world use cases. These include services in the industrial and mobility sector, which were developed in direct cooperation with industry partners.The main target audience of this book is industry-focused readers, especially practitioners from industry, who are involved in supporting and managing digital business. These include professionals working in business development, product management, strategy, and development, ranging from middle management to Chief Digital Officers. It conveys all the basics needed for developing smart services and successfully placing them on the market by explaining technical aspects as well as showcasing practical use cases.
März bis Mai 2020: Es sind drei Monate, die die Welt verändern, in denen in Italien Tausende von Menschen sterben und hierzulande das Toilettenpapier aus den Supermarktregalen verschwindet.
Die Corona-Tagebücher berichten unaufgeregt aus der Zeit des Lockdowns in einer süddeutschen Stadt. Sie bieten einen ständigen Faktencheck und den Blick über die eigenen Landesgrenzen, vor allem nach Italien, wo das neue Virus sich europaweit zuerst ausbreitet. Sachlich fundiert, sind die Tagebücher gleichzeitig ein sehr persnliches Zeitdokument.
Marco Lalli ist Schriftsteller und promovierter Sozialwissenschaftler. Als Statistiker verfügt er über eine umfassende epidemiologische Ausbildung, mit der er die Hintergründe der Corona-Pandemie verständlich erklärt. Er ist zudem bekannt durch seine Ausführungen zum Themenkomplex des autonomen Fahrens.
Over the past few years, Internet of Things has brought great changes to the world. Reports show that, the number of IoT devices is expected to reach 10 billion units within the next three years. The number will continue to rise and wildly use as infrastructure and housewares with each passing day, Therefore, ensuring the safe and stable operation of IoT devices has become more important for IoT manufacturers.
Generally, four key aspects are involved in security risks when users use typical IoT products such as routers, smart speakers, and in-car entertainment systems, which are cloud, terminal, mobile device applications, and communication data. Security issues concerning any of the four may lead to the leakage of user sensitive data. Another problem is that most IoT devices are upgraded less frequently, which leads it is difficult to resolve legacy security risks in short term. In order to cope with such complex security risks,Security Companies in China, such as Qihoo 360, Xiaomi, Alibaba and Tencent, and companies in United States, e.g. Amazon, Google, Microsoft and some other companies have invested in security teams to conduct research and analyses, the findings they shared let the public become more aware of IoT device security-related risks. Currently, many IoT product suppliers have begun hiring equipment evaluation services and purchasing security protection products.
As a direct participant in the IoT ecological security research project, I would like to introduce the book to anyone who is a beginner that is willing to start the IoT journey, practitioners in the IoT ecosystem, and practitioners in the security industry. This book provides beginners with key theories and methods for IoT device penetration testing; explains various tools and techniques for hardware, firmware and wireless protocol analysis; and explains how to design a secure IoT device system, while providing relevant code details.
Ultrasound has rapidly become integral to the practice of emergency medicine. Over the past few years, with improvements in device size and cost, there has been increasing interest in exploring the utility of ultrasound in the prehospital environment. Much of the available literature on ultrasound in the emergency setting focuses on care delivered in emergency departments and intensive care units within the developed world. As a result, most resources are inappropriate and inadequate for doctors and non-physicians practicing in out-of-hospital environments that, by definition, are resource limited. This manual fills that gap by focusing on simplified discussions of ultrasound studies, ultrasound physics, and research that impacts out-of-hospital care in order to meet the needs of prehospital and austere providers.
The manual discusses the use of ultrasound for diagnosis in out-of-hospital care, advanced noninvasive monitoring of patients, and safety in performing procedures common to the prehospital and austere environment. As is the approach for prehospital education, the chapters are complaint based and not diagnosis based where applicable. Chapters cover ultrasound image interpretation and basic physics; common image adjustments to improve image quality; unique challenges found in urban prehospital environments, austere/wilderness environments, tactical environments, and military special operations environments; and initial training, quality improvement/assurance programs, and credentialing. It also includes a section on procedures such as pericardiocentesis, vascular access, cricothyroidotomy, and others specific to austere providers. The Manual of Austere and Prehospital Ultrasound is an essential resource for physicians and related professionals, residents, and medical students in emergency medicine, civilian and military EMS providers, and critical care flight paramedics and nurses.
This book examines the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity accounting within an applied development content for Costa Rica. By doing so, it is possible to track changes as well as perhaps link these to overarching global issues, such as trade, globalization, and food security, among other emergent topics based findings stemming from this methodology. Based on a timeseries since 1961, it is possible to track cross-temporal changes of land-type categories (for crop land, grazing land, forest land, fishing ground, built-up land, and carbon) of the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity conveying whether a country is in ecological deficit and what may be contributing to such a trend
This book provides a step-by-step methodology and derivation of deep learning algorithms as Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Convolution Neural Network (CNN), especially for estimating parameters, with back-propagation as well as examples with real datasets of hydrometeorology (e.g. streamflow and temperature) and environmental science (e.g. water quality). Deep learning is known as part of machine learning methodology based on the artificial neural network. Increasing data availability and computing power enhance applications of deep learning to hydrometeorological and environmental fields. However, books that specifically focus on applications to these fields are limited.Most of deep learning books demonstrate theoretical backgrounds and mathematics. However, examples with real data and step-by-step explanations to understand the algorithms in hydrometeorology and environmental science are very rare. This book focuses on the explanation of deep learning techniques and their applications to hydrometeorological and environmental studies with real hydrological and environmental data. This book covers the major deep learning algorithms as Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Convolution Neural Network (CNN) as well as the conventional artificial neural network model.
This book is a timely document of state-of-the art analytical techniques in the domain of stream cipher design and analysis with a specific cipher, named ZUC. It links new research to brief contextual literature review in the domain of complex LFSR-based stream ciphers. A snapshot of how stream ciphers are deployed in the mobile telephony architecture, one of the most well-known topics for more than five decades in the domain of computer and communication sciences, is presented in this book. The book provides an in-depth study on design and cryptanalysis of ZUC as well as relevant research results in this field with directions towards future analysis of this cipher.